Major shifts in how animals are bred, raised and slaughtered are involved in the intensification of livestock sys-tems. Globally, these changes have produced major increases in access to protein-rich foods with high levels ofmicronutrients. Yet the intensification of livestock systems generates numerous externalities including environ-mental degradation, zoonotic disease transmission and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR)genes.Where the process of intensification is most advanced, the expertise, institutions and regulations required tomanage these externalities have developed over time, often in response to hard lessons, crises and challengesto public health. By exploring the drivers of intensification, the foci of future intensification can be identified.Low- and middle-income (LMICs) countries are likely to experience significant intensification in livestock pro-duction in the near future; however, the lessons learned elsewhere are not being transferred rapidly enough todevelop risk mitigation capacity in these settings. At present, fragmentary approaches to address these problemspresent an incomplete picture of livestock populations, antimicrobial use, and disease risks in LMIC settings. Aworldwide improvement in evidence-based zoonotic disease and AMR management within intensifying live-stock production systems demands better information on the burden of livestock-associated disease, antimicro-bial use and resistance and resources allocated to mitigation.

This journal article benefited from support by ISDC as Science Forum 2018 (SF18) background paper.


Gilbert, W., Thomas, L.F, Coyne, L. and Rushton, J. (2021). Review: Mitigating the risks posed by intensification in livestock production: the examples of antimicrobial resistance and zoonoses. Animal 15 (2): 100123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2020.100123.


Gilbert, W., Thomas, L.F., Coyne, L., and Rushton, J.